Sildenafil, sold as the brand name Viagra among others, is a medication used half life of sildenafil treat erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Common side effects include headaches and heartburn, as well as flushed skin. Caution is advised in those who have cardiovascular disease.
GMP, which regulates blood flow in the penis. Pfizer scientists Andrew Bell, David Brown, and Nicholas Terrett originally discovered sildenafil as a treatment for various cardiovascular disorders. Its use is now one of the standard treatments for erectile dysfunction, including for men with diabetes mellitus. Tentative evidence suggests that sildenafil may help men who experience antidepressant-induced erectile dysfunction. While sildenafil improves some markers of disease in people with pulmonary arterial hypertension, it does not appear to affect the risk of death or serious side effects as of 2014. Sildenafil has been studied for high-altitude pulmonary edema but its use is currently not recommended for that indication. Care should be exercised by people who are also taking protease inhibitors for the treatment of HIV infection. Protease inhibitors inhibit the metabolism of sildenafil, effectively multiplying the plasma levels of sildenafil, increasing the incidence and severity of side effects. Sildenafil’s popularity with young adults has increased over the years. Sildenafil’s trade name, Viagra, is widely recognized in popular culture, and the drug’s association with treating erectile dysfunction has led to its recreational use. Unprescribed recreational use of sildenafil and other PDE5 inhibitors is noted as particularly high among users of illegal drugs.
Sildenafil is sometimes used to counteract the effects of other substances, often illicit. The 2007 Ig Nobel Prize in Aviation went to Patricia V. Professional athletes have been documented using sildenafil, believing the opening of their blood vessels will enrich their muscles. In turn, they believe it will enhance their performances. Acetildenafil and other synthetic structural analogs of sildenafil which are PDE5 inhibitors have been found as adulterants in a number of “herbal” aphrodisiac products sold over-the-counter. The US FDA has banned numerous products claiming to be Eurycoma longifolia that, in fact, contain only analogs of sildenafil. N-desmethylsildenafil, its major active metabolite, may be quantified in plasma, serum, or whole blood to assess pharmacokinetic status in those receiving the drug therapeutically, to confirm the diagnosis in potential poisoning victims, or to assist in the forensic investigation in a case of fatal overdose. The major product of metabolisation by these enzymes is N-desmethylated sildenafil, which is metabolised further.
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Under the tongue use of sildenafil for erectile dysfunction results in an average onset of action of 15 minutes and lasting for an average of 40 minutes. There are also mouth spray preparations of sildenafil for faster onset of action. Pfizer’s Sandwich, Kent, research facility in England.
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