Viagra serendipity

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Do you have a good boat name that’s not above? Then contact us and we will add it here. Jump to navigation Jump to search The role of chance, or “luck”, in science comprises all ways in which unexpected discoveries are made. Dunbar quotes Louis Pasteur’s saying that “Chance favors only the prepared mind”. Research suggests that scientists are taught various heuristics and practices that allow their investigations to benefit, and not suffer, from accidents. A model based on the work of Kevin Dunbar and Jonathan Fugelsang. The two say that the first step is to realize a result is unexpected and unexplained. Accidental discoveries have been a topic of discussion especially from the 20th century onwards. The author Nassim Nicholas Taleb calls science “anti-fragile”.

That is, science can actually use — and benefit from — the chaos of the real world. While some methods of investigation are fragile in the face of human error and randomness, the scientific method relies on randomness in many ways. Taleb believes that the more anti-fragile the system, the more it will flourish in the real world. The word “Serendipity” is frequently understood as simply “a happy accident”, but Horace Walpole used the word ‘serendipity’ to refer to a certain kind of happy accident: the kind that can only be exploited by a “sagacious” or clever person. Dunbar and Fugelsang suggest that the process of discovery often starts when a researcher finds bugs in their experiment. These unexpected results lead a researcher to self-doubt, and to try and fix what they think is an error in their own methodology. This process is also local in the sense that the scientist is relatively independent or else working with one partner. It is true that my discovery of LSD was a chance discovery, but it was the outcome of planned experiments and these experiments took place in the framework of systematic pharmaceutical, chemical research.

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It could better be described as serendipity. Dunbar and colleagues cite the discoveries of Hofmann and others as having involved serendipity. In contrast, the mind can be “prepared” in ways that obstruct serendipity — making new knowledge difficult or impossible to take in.

Fugelsang and Dunbar observe scientists while they work together in labs or analyze data, but they also use experimental settings and even neuroimaging. Serendipitous discoveries often requires certain mental conditions in the investigator beyond rigor. For example, a scientist must know all about what is expected before they can be surprised, and this requires experience in the field. Royston Roberts says that various discoveries required a degree of genius, but also some lucky element for that genius to act on. Richard Gaughan writes that accidental discoveries result from the convergence of preparation, opportunity, and desire. An example of luck in science is when drugs under investigation become known for different, unexpected uses. Albert Hofmann, who was originally working with the substance to try and treat migraines and bleeding after childbirth. Look up chance in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

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